From 1879 to 1885 Stanley, as Leopold`s emissary, went to Congo with the secret mission to organize the Congolese Free State, a commercial enterprise in Congo. The French secret services had discovered Leopold`s plans, and France quickly embarked on its own colonial exploration. French naval officer Pierre de Brazza was sent to the Central African Republic, travelled to the western basin of Congo and the French flag was raised in 1881 over the new town of Brazzaville in present-day Republic of Congo. In addition, Portugal has had a long history in the world thanks to its trade and trade agreements with the Congolese empire in the region, thanks to its treaties with the Congolese empire, which has essentially become a state of Portugal. On February 2, 1884, he entered into a treaty with his former ally, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to block Congolese society`s access to the Atlantic. After witnessing the political and economic rivalries between European empires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the formal partition of Africa prevented European countries from fighting on the territory. The conference was an opportunity to channel latent European hostilities outward, to create new areas for European expansion in the face of the growing interests of the United States, Russia and Japan, and to create a constructive dialogue to limit future hostilities. In the last years of the 19th century, informal imperialism went from “informal imperialism,” through military influence and economic domination, to direct domination that led to colonial imperialism. In the mid-19th century, Protestant missions worked actively on the Guinean coast, in South Africa and in the zanzibar kingdoms. Missionaries visited little-known regions and peoples and often became explorers and pioneers of commerce and the Empire. David Livingstone, a Scottish missionary, had been working north of the Orange River since 1840. In 1849 Livingstone crossed the Kalahari Desert from south to north and reached Lake Ngami.
Between 1851 and 1856, he crossed the continent from west to east and discovered the great waterways of the high Zambezi River. In November 1855 Livingstone became the first European to see the famous Victoria Falls, named after the Queen of the United Kingdom. From 1858 to 1864 the Lower Zambezi, the Shire River and Livingstone Nyasa Lake were explored. Nyasa was first joined by the confidential slave of Antonio da Silva Porto, a Portuguese merchant from Bié in Angola who crossed Africa between 1853 and 1856, from Benguella to the mouth of the Rovuma. A priority target for explorers was to locate the source of the Nile. Expeditions of Burton and Speke (1857-1858) and Speke and Grant (1863) on Lake Tanganjika and Lake Victoria. It eventually turned out that the Nile was sinking. The Portuguese explorer Prince Henry, known as a navigator, was the first European to methodically explore Africa and the ocean route to India. From his home in the Algarve region of southern Portugal, he led successive expeditions to tour Africa and reach India. In 1420, Henry sent an expedition to secure the uninhabited but strategic island of Madeira. In 1425, he also tried to secure the Canary Islands, which were already under Castilian control.
In 1431, another Portuguese expedition reached and annexed the Azores. The Berlin conference is better understood as the formalization of The Scramble for Africa. This Briton used the term in 1884, and has since been used to describe the twenty years during which the various European powers explored, divided, conquered and began to exploit virtually the entire African continent. The European powers slowly realized the benefits of land-use solicitation in Africa and clung mainly to coastal colonies.