The 1992 Earth Summit presented several long-term reports and implementation plans that continue to serve as the basis for international environmental action, including the World Summit for Sustainable Development (Earth Summit 2002) and the Kyoto Protocol. The 1992 Earth Summit gave the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, Forest Principles and Agenda 21. The Earth Summit also led to the establishment of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference and the Earth Summit (ECO92 in Portuguese), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. The 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (CNUCID), also known as the Rio Conference, aimed to develop strategies and measures to curb and reverse the impact of environmental degradation as part of increased national and international efforts to promote sustainable and environmentally friendly development in all countries. This was not only a priority and a culmination of the efforts of the United Nations General Assembly (UN) since 1989, but also a continuation of the process that began with the 1972 Stockholm Conference, which highlighted international cooperation in the field of the environment. The CNUJ took place in Rio from 3 to 14 June 1992. 172 countries participated, of which 108 were represented by heads of state or government. A side event, the Global Forum 1992, was organized as a series of events and exhibitions presented by independent professional organizations… Twelve cities also received the local Government Honours Award for innovative local environmental programs. These include Sudbury, Canada for its ambitious environmental damage rehabilitation program by the local mining industry, Austin in the United States for its green real estate strategy, and Kitaky-Shé in Japan for the inclusion of an international general training and training component in its municipal pollution control program.
To ensure compliance with the Rio Agreements (particularly the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and Agenda 21), Earth Summit delegates established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD). In 2013, the CSD was replaced by the High-Level Policy Forum on Sustainable Development, which meets annually as part of ECOSOC meetings and every four years as part of the General Assembly. Critics point out that many of the agreements reached in Rio have not been implemented on such fundamental issues as the fight against poverty and environmental clean-up. The most important documents that were adopted at the Earth Summit are the following. The Convention on Biological Diversity is a binding treaty that requires nations to remove inventories of their plants and wildlife and protect their endangered species. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is a binding treaty that requires nations to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other “greenhouse gases” that are supposed to be responsible for global warming; However, the treaty has not set binding emission reduction targets.