Port security has been promoted by legal authors as a reduction in insecurity created by the use of a vague standard (such as recklessness).  On the other hand, this type of rule-making also avoids the problem of creating a specific rule that does not give a judge a margin of appreciation to authorize “hard cases”. 14-21 In theory, the formulation of safe harbour can combine the merits of vague standards and specific rules, so that Parliament can prescribe with certainty the pre-result for certain predictable cases and leave it to the judges to rule on pending cases. 16-18 Until today, the SHAs used in Florida were used to protect the habitat of the red-tailed woodpecker (Picoides borealis). There are currently 16 SHAs (about 95,000 hectares) in Florida. Participants in these agreements are generally larger landowners who already apply land management practices that benefit the wildlife in their wildlife management. The actions taken by these landowners are likely to assist in the recovery of RCW species in Florida. The use of HSAs in North Carolina has already helped reverse the decline in vehicle numbers and maintain a positive attitude on the part of landowners towards ESA rules (Kishida 2001). Learn more about a Safe Harbor Agreement that provides suitable habitat for species listed as grey grey and northern owls in Northern California. As part of environmental protection, a voluntary Safe Harbor Agreement can be reached between landowners and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) or the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), under which a landowner implements protection and restoration measures for an endangered species protected by the Endangered Species Act with habitat on its land. In return, the FWS or NOAA promises not to require additional or derogatory conservation measures on the land without the consent of the landowner. When the contract expires, the landowner is allowed to return to the landscape at his request.
 We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, received an application from Susan Sorrells (applicant) to improve the survival permit (authorization) under the Minor Species Act. The application contains a draft Safe Harbor Agreement (SHA) to facilitate the reintroduction and restoration of Confederal-threatened Amargosa moults on non-federal lands in California.